This study gives more information Total Quality Management The Japanese transformed their economy and industry through a visionary management technique called total quality management(TQM). Total quality management, employee commitment and competitive advantage in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Moreover, stated that all educational associations should stress the emphasis on in-service training and growth and an ongoing process for acquiring knowledge and skills for administrative staff to acquire and upgrade social, technical and theoretical skills and abilities. WSS also enables the participation of experts from both within and outside the organisation to share knowledge in a Six Sigma project. 4. Current educational exploration has demonstrated that schools have changed into quality learning association which should be organised all around and to recharge ceaselessly considering the present and future needs. The concept of Total Quality Management (TQM) was developed by an American, W. Edwards Deming, after World War II for improving the production quality of goods and services. Quality of teacher has been a noteworthy reason for stress in the nation and one of the fundamental pre-necessities to enhance quality. Herman and Herman (1994) stated three levels of application of quality management in education. It has been used very successfully in the development and acquisition of systems such as satellites and aircraft to preparing officer performance reports. An acknowledgement for the need of TQM from the industry, parents and other stakeholders has necessitated schools to embrace the TQM phenomenon in order to produce the best academic required results by channelling out graduates who are ready for the job market. WSS was demonstrated to practitioners. total quality management (TQM) seminars to train the engineers and operators. Data was collected through five-point Likert scale Questionnaire from the sampled students. 125. Also addresses the differences between industry and education. Total quality management (TQM) is an ongoing process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors. TQM dimensions: Description: Top management leadership: Top management commitment is one of the major determinants of successful TQM implementation. TQM is techniques which provide a Nonetheless, TQM was initiated in the manufacturing sector and its successful application in the educational setting should only be justified with ample … https://doi.org/10.1108/09513549610146114. Total Quality Management: Definition, Characteristics and Benefits Total Quality Management is a management approach that was instigated in the 1950s and has gradually become popular since the early 1980s. It helps an institution to work within its budget and predetermined time limit;; and to establish a flexible design and infrastructure so as […] The integration of these fields is necessary as they have played beneficial roles in organisational improvement. ERIC Identifier: ED347404. Abstract. The term ‘quality’ is at the core of this philosophy. This Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the most popular management processes adopted by many institutions (Ritter, 2005). Keywords: Education, Performance, Primary Schools; Quality, Total Quality Management. Reviewing fresh literature from the internet and other sources, the works of W. Edward Deming's: fourteen principles for quality assurance, Philip Crosby's: fourteen points for quality management & the idea of zero defect, and J. Juran's three areas: quality planning, quality improvement and quality control are discussed. faced and resolved on a regular basis. It is the will to produce a superior thing.-- John Ruskin It requires a quality experience to create an independent learner.--Myron Tribus Research Findings Conduct an orientation, “Individuals must establish improvement, accomplishing error free tasks. If you think you should have access to this content, click the button to contact our support team. This is, Awards should be given to those who, Genuine recognition of performance is, to solve the problems and designs the. Application of total quality management in education: retrospect and prospect Application of total quality management in education: retrospect and prospect Paula Y.K. All these quality improvement initiatives could be brought under the broad spectrum of total quality management (TQM). The rise of demands towards the quality improvements in education services and awareness in being more competitive to fulfill customers' requirements has paved a way towards better quality management. Preferably, the department heads. Principle #1: Synergistic Relationships According to this principle, an organization must focus, first and foremost, on its suppliers and customers. that small businesses perceive when they think about total quality The research methodology adopted to write the article is the quantitative approach, a sample size of 50 respondents comprising of 10principals, 10 heads of department, 10 lecturers, 10 parents, and 10 industry representatives was selected. Abstract The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the … The concept of TQM is applicable to academics. Involving all members of the organization makes total quality control better(T otal Quality Management, TQM). It can assist institutions to manage change and to set their own agendas for dealing with the plethora of new external pressures. You may be able to access this content by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account. Purpose of the study was to compare the Total Quality Management (TQM) of public and private universities and to know the perceptions of students about the aspects of TQM. adhoc committee to study and prepare, trained for implementing their role for, Crosby (1979). The courses help students develop their Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) highlighting the features of competency-based learning and creative thinking. The correlation was used for the calculation of checking the relation between variables. This is. Juran (1988), that’s close enough and the measurement. employees of the organization. The interest in primary education stems from the fact that primary education provides the foundation for knowledge, skill, attitude, and to prepare children for adult world. Companies were found to have training programs like. The concept of synergy suggests that performance and production is enhanced by pooling the … Most writers appear inclined to suggest that TQM is a unique … ways of carrying out their job efficiently. Applying Total Quality Management Principles To Secondary Education Mt. British engineering base, the study looked at a attitudes to TQM issues You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.You can also find out more about Emerald Engage. Nowadays, education institutions obtain more significant influence based on society needs compared to previous years. One of the main applications of the Six Sigma in this paper is educational quality management. Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates, Answers to the most commonly asked questions here, (Senior Lecturer, Division of Commerce, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong). The article recommended the application of TQM in private schools in order to enhance the quality of education. TQM interventions quantify problems and aim to achieve the best state defined in terms of such customer expectations.Some examples of the application … Publication Date: 1992-00-00. established in the organization's system. The total quality management model includes the following: process planning, process management, continual improvement, total involvement and focus on the user. Total Quality management can be divided into four categories: Plan Do Check Act Also referred to as PDCA cycle. The concept was not taken seriously by Americans until the Japanese, who adopted it in 1950 to resurrect their postwar business and industry, used it to dominate world markets by 1980. All content in this area was uploaded by Muhammad Shahid Farooq on Feb 24, 2016, APPLICATION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN. ... TQM in education is most important for the prosperity of families and countries as well. questionnaire followed by detailed interviews with quality managers, The applicability of TQM in the educational sector has attracted the interest of many researchers and practitioners The study used a questionnaire to gather data from distributed on the 300 employees used random sample was applied to the population of this study consisting of all executives, department managers and employees of the Insurance Companies in Amman, Jordan. Many educators believe that the Deming's concept of TQM provides guiding principles for needed educational reform. This study has explored all the literature relevant to critical success factors for the implementation of TQM in the selected service organization. Sample size of the study was taken as 150 both male and female students from public and private sector Universities on even basis. The results of this study reveal significant improvements in quality and satisfaction in educational institutions adopting a T .Q. The present curricular development of English Expository Writing courses for UG degree programs in Pakistan is a joint project undertaken by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC), the United States Department of State’s Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs’ Regional English Language Office (RELO Pakistan), and Pakistani faculty who are founding members of the Pak-TESOL association. However, according to Bonstingl, this outdated practice no longer serves us: "When I close the classroom door, those kids are mine!" ... A teamwork spirit should exist between the teachers, parents and the students to have a common objective of producing the best results. LEVELS OF APPLICATION Herman and Herman (1994) stated three levels of application of quality management in education 24/09/2017 … It enhances a feeling of confidence and trust and alleviates insecurity and fear among members of an institution. The research instrument used was a self-administered questionnaire. TQM has become a key field of responsiveness to directors, managers, quality practitioners and researchers due to its robust impact on business operation, customer satisfaction and profitability in the sphere of hospitality, education, banking, information and communication technology as the service sector, manufacturing, and even in the public sector to restore their service quality and enhanced job performance. Abstract. The very application of the first pillar of TQM to education emphasizes the synergistic relationship between the “suppliers” and “customers”. The questionnaire consists of three sections. in academic libraries especially university libraries. is a notion too narrow to survive in a world in which teamwork and collaboration result in high-quality benefits for the greatest number of people. The courses aim for the students to gain confidence in their abilities to communicate in oral and written English outside their classroom in real life situations. The majority of managers emphasized on customer satisfaction as the goal of quality. education have begun to explore various management processes (McMillan, 1998). Least Square-Structure Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) program was chosen and used in this study in an effort to examine and test the data associated with the hypotheses. Priority ranking in selection of vendors and detection of the product defects in were also found to form a part of the quality management program. In his article, "The Quality Revolution in Education," John Jay Bonstingl outlines the TQM principles he believes are most salient to education reform. The strong linkage between the economy and education was never so clearly visible as now. By this approach we can * Javad Mehrabi. In the light of this, an endeavour has been worked to study and recognize the theory and perception of TQM, its benefits as well as various features of service elements and its categorizations which are applicable to the avail organization. Educationalists, policy makers, scholars, and researchers are showing their sincere interest towards the total quality management (TQM) as it is recognized as an effective management … The Board of Education is the board of directors thus responsible directly to the clients, and board members are overseers of the administration 24/09/2017 fousimohd76@gmail.com 15 16. form of a Education has always been facing the contest in confirming that the quality of teaching and learning takes place persuasively. implied want (Arnold & Holler, 1996; to Crosby (1979) it is conformance to, excellence and is satisfied with fitness. It is always the result of intelligent effort. He calls them the "Four Pillars of Total Quality Management." The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. key factor in continuous improvement. (1996), "Application of total quality management in education: retrospect and prospect", International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. Total quality management. in education. amount them the quality will certainly, information and training deficient feed, in new techniques and philosophies of. The advantages of Total Quality management have been valued by many companies around the world. The authors define the quality of NDT operations and introduce seven major features of an effective quality system for an NDT operation. The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. to become successful writers and readers of English. Data collected was analysed using both inferential and descriptive statistical tools. For this study, 311 teachers and 20 principals were identified as respondents from 20 primary schools. The present research focuses on the principal's and teacher's attitude towards implementing TQM indicator in the school, and understanding relationships between TQM indicators among the principals and the teachers of primary schools of Ahmedabad district in one comprehensive model. Within a Total Quality school setting, administrators work collaboratively with their customers: teachers. This can be, improvement of production or services, to help the colleagues how to use the. A major long-term benefit of Total Quality Management relates to customer satisfaction. This paper also examines TQM aims at improving quality, and identifies the best measure of quality as matching customer expectations in terms of service, product, and experience. Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab,Lahore. 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513549610146114. It complements three main principles; i) the establishment of business objectives and strategies, ii) the suitable utilization and implementation of TQM, and iii) the effects and impacts of TQM. Non-destructive tests are generally considered 'special' in the sense that internal characteristics are sought indirectly by methods which have inherent limitations, often under difficult conditions in the field. Most writers appear inclined to suggest that TQM is a unique solution for effective school management. general managers and consultants, International Journal of Process Management and Benchmarking. cooperation so long as there is progress. The data collected were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 22. The respondents were selected using the simple random sampling technique from the private tertiary institutions in Gauteng Province. service management in university libraries. Cost and delivery times were also established as important parameters in the implementation of quality control programs. Quality measurement in the service sector, Web-based Six Sigma: A technique for zero defects manufacturing through global knowledge sharing, Managerial Perception of Quality Control in Japanese Businesses. This paper investigates the application of TQM to educational organizations using Jordanian higher educational sector as a model example. Quality management in education plays a vital role in achieving quality goals through planning, monitoring, assuring and improving quality too. should be with comprehensive plan of, management’s role to star a never ending, concept of quality trilogy that is “Quality, control should be operative. companies still shun it in droves? By then most U.S. manufacturers had finally accepted that the nineteenth century assembly line factory model was outdated for the modern global economic markets. Additionally, small companies can use Kaizen to enhance the overall work with low cost compared to other methods of improvement, which can be of a high cost that small companies cannot afford.Keywords: Kaizen implementation, Education and training, Cultural factors, Employees work improvement, Overall work and quality of services, Insurance CompaniesJEL Classifications: G22, P36DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.9994. Total Quality Management is both a philosophy and a methodology. Quality education is a great concern in many societies across the world. Data analysis included test based on difference. Total quality Management is a systematic approach to education reform (Deming, 2004).This philosophy also provides a framework that can integrate many positive developments in education, such as teamwork, site-based management, cooperative learning and outcomes-based education. about TQM and how it is important for service management in university libraries. In this context, this paper reports the construction and working of a model called Web-based Six Sigma (WSS). Mehrotra (2006) thinks that, ... TQM has been broadly defined by so many researchers. Understanding Total Quality Management Due to the vast diversity and perspectives of quality management and Total Quality Management (TQM), achieving a consensual definition is problematic (Idris & Zairi, 2006). Total Quality Management (TQM) is methodology that facilities adapting to today’s changing external environment. The problem of the study was to determine the status of Total Quality Management of Public and Private sector Universities in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Many practices have reached at the conclusion that effective TQM implementation can progress their competitive skills and provide strategic benefits in the market. Thus, the contributions of this study is for the development of the education in school, to enrich the quality dimensions of TQM in the education area and it may also kindle further research studies in institutions located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat and India on the various challenges of quality faced by the stakeholders. In fact, the way in which this university is working with quality issu es now, will be compared with a TQM approach and the weaknesses and strengthens of the quality work will be recognized.TQM is a vision, which the educational institution can only achieve through long-term planning, by drawing up and implementation annual quality plans, which gradually lead the firm … The concept of synergy suggests that performance and production is enhanced by pooling the talent and experience of individuals. The study aimed to understand the impact of the five Kaizen success measurements (Organizational Policy and Awareness, Education and training, Cultural factors, Internal processes assessment and recognition) on the overall quality of work and the quality through by Employees Work Improvement as mediated factor on Insurance Companies in Amman. Planning Phase. The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm "Total Quality Management" (TQM), and its application in the field of education. Nonetheless, TQM was initiated in the manufacturing sector and its successful application in the educational setting should only be justified with ample theoretical support and concrete evidence. TQM as a management model, with its emphasis on leadership, strategy, teamwork, rigorous analysis and self-assessment, has a universal message. the library professional’s perception and behavior about application of TQM. The study was quantitative in nature. Performance demonstration and the application of appropriate clauses of relevant standards are discussed. An urgent need towards the movement of total quality in school education should be focused. While defining total quality management, scholars took the oppor- All rights reserved. In this paper we discuss the significance of the effective application of Total Quality Management approach in teaching and learning process. Based on the findings of the needs analyses and the objectives highlighted in the HEC UG Education Policy 2020, these three Expository Writing courses included in this series prepare undergraduates, If continuous improvement is such a good thing, why do small management (TQM). Source: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. In a TQM organization, everyone is both a customer and supplier; this confusing concept emphasizes "the systematic nature of the work in which all are involved". Top management has to be the first in applying and stimulating the TQM approach, and they have to accept the maximum responsibility for the product and service offering. The educational institutions must scrutinize hurdles sensibly for the effective execution of TQM in order to attain continuous perfection and sustainability M.S. In this paper, the Deming criteria from Deming Prize award is overviewed to design a new TQM conceptual framework for education services to improve the total organization system. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. education is a basic investment necessary to improve the overall quality of life. KEYWORDS: Banking, education, hospitality, manufacturing, performance, total quality management. The result showed that the adoption of total quality management practices and employee commitment significantly affects competitive advantage. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question (s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. The purpose of the paper is to analyzing thoughts of the modern management paradigm “Total Quality Management” (TQM), and its application in the field of education. in the organization, it will never happen. Kwan 1996-10-01 00:00:00 Points out that recent discussion has centred on the application of total quality management (TQM) in education. ERIC Digest. facilities with the Six Sigma concept. Application of Total Quality Management in Education. To investigate the perception of quality within the Traditionally, education has been prone to individual and departmental isolation. Over the last few years, TQM has been applied in the education industry. Most writers appear inclined to suggest that TQM is a unique solution for effective school management. Total quality management is a pattern of convenient facilities small and medium enterprises that seek to raise thequality, but its application requires a new way of thinking which may not agree with what used to it, it is important when applying any new administrative method, like total quality management in particular, to help workers to accept The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview about the quality In the next stage, a conceptual framework will be designed and used at an educational institution for the TQM system implementation. TQM in education has as its message the idea that every student has … A set of questionaires were prepared to ask various Japanese managers concerned with quality management. In light of the findings and conclusion, it was recommended to HEC to strengthen Higher Education system to implement TQM in public Universities so that to attain all-round, multifaceted personality; to acquire leadership qualities, to sharpen communication and interpersonal skills, to acquire knowledge of the latest trends in technology& Research, to have exposure to industrial climate and to gain confidence to face changes in the highly competitive and ever changing world. WSS enables the integration of WE, Few, if any, industrial organizations today have remained unaffected by the quality movement, which emerged as one of the key management issues of the 1980s. 10 No. The philosophies of the pioneers of the quality movement, Deming, Juran and Crosby, have not been translated very accurately into the practice of education 4. Total quality management is an efficient management technique that requires the full involvement of all employees on all organizational levels, thus representing the organizational culture. massive help to create effective and fruitful service environment. The basic theme of TQM is participatory approach to address the question(s) of quality in business aswell as in the field of education. The data used for this article were derived from a systematic review of the relevant literature and a structured questionnaire. Kwan, P.Y.K. Most of the principles of TQM can be implemented in the area of education … The focus is on In a highly competitive education sector, the success of academic institutions depends on the quality of education. To rent this content from Deepdyve, please click the button. played by the total quality management in the provision of quality education services when applied effectively (Kerr, 2011). © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Additionally, the reliability of examinations depends on a wide variety of factors; NDT tasks are operator-dependent, for example. This article therefore examines the relationship between total quality management (TQM), employee commitment and competitive advantage among tertiary institutions in Lagos State with a particular focus on the University of Lagos, using a survey research design with a random selection of 350 respondents from a population of 2,047 staff strength across the 11 faculties in the university. It is expected that this study will lead to new insights on TQM implementation in education services. gained much more importance and widespread acceptance in the form of total quality management (TQM) in the 1980s.This article questions the relationship between marketing and quality as management functions and demonstrates how an holistic approach to the strategic management of quality can affect the role that marketing plays in developing quality strategies and implementing quality programs in industrial organizations. In order to ensure the success of TQM implementation, there are various awards to recognize the quality initiatives by the organizations, and one of them is known as the Deming Prize. The regression analysis was applied to check out the influence of product characteristics and animated spokesperson characteristics. However, according to Baird et al. the importance of this study Where is the concept of total quality of modern application topics in the global institutions of higher Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Aims to explore the relevance of employing TQM in education. actions. The results show Kaizen methods positively effect on the employee work improvement of the companies of. However, this research is trying to explore the relevance of TQM in primary education. TQM and employee commitment through its principles can successfully contribute to enhanced organizational performance and dynamic competitiveness.The quality of education offered by the tertiary institutions in Nigeria in recent times has critically degenerated. Traducción de: Completeness : quality for the 21st century Incluye índice. The author looks at the obstacles Total Quality Management (TQM) is a concept introduced by business and industry to establish standards and techniques that ensure the quality of products leaving and reaching … School leaders are finding that TQM principles can provide the formula for improving America's schools. The findings revealed that respondents attitudes varied with, gender, total teaching experience and current school teaching experience for the perception of TQM, job satisfaction and school performance. TQM is mainly used inthe industry but the education sector has however embraced this important philosophy in order to increase the quality of education. through learning experience to masses, processes Deming (1999). Many organizations have achieved excellence and competitive lead by putting into practice TQM policy. Total quality management ensures that every single employee is working towards the improvement of work culture, processes, services, systems and so on to ensure long term success. Additionally, institute training should Provide perpetual training programs related to the work of faculty members, affiliated employees, and educational institution management where each program will pursue the organization's vision and mission through the staff participation and institutional changes as advised by, ... Institute Training Establish a mechanism of continuous training on the work for members of the faculty, allied staff and administration of educational institutions. A study of the University of Lagos, Total Quality Management Effects in Private Tertiary Institutions in Gauteng Province, South Africa, Evaluating the Five Kaizen Success Measurements through Employees Work Improvement and its Effects on Overall Work and Quality of Services: Empirical Study of Insurance Companies in Jordan, Total Quality Management in Higher Education, Overview of Deming Criteria for Total Quality Management Conceptual Framework Design in Education Services, Total Quality Management System in an Education Environment: The Case of a Private University in Bahrain, The status of Total Quality Management of Public and Private sector Universities in District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Identification and Perception of Principals and Teachers towards Total Quality Management Indicators in the Primary Schools, A State-Of-Art Review Of Total Quality Management Application In Service Sector, Quality Service Management in the University Libraries: A Literature Review Paper, Applying Total Quality Management In Academics, Quality is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain, Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-Free Management, Total Quality Management (TQM) for schools, Completeness : plenitud / Philip B. Crosby, Teachers’ Politeness as a Predictor of Students’ Self Esteem, Academic Vocabulary Use in Doctoral Theses: A Corpus-Based Lexical Analysis of Academic Word List (AWL) in Major Scientific Disciplinary Groups. Their preliminary reactions indicated WSS's practical validity. Attempts to trace the literature that discusses the application of TQM in education. Through the application of TQM at higher education system that is carried out continuously and consistently, the higher education institutions will be able to win global competition that is very competitive and obtain the benefits that can be used to develop and … Farooq et al. The sample of the study remained six Universities in which three were selected from Public while three others were selected from private sector Universities. One of the quality improvement models that could be implemented is Total Quality Management (TQM), which has been widely used in industries and service sectors. The survey took the, The authors attempt to provide an understanding of total quality ... Hughey further explained how each of the 14 points is useful to make more exceptional quality, accountability, and fulfill customer satisfaction in higher education [23]. Gone are the vestiges of “Scientific Management” popularized early in this century by Frederick Winslow Taylor, whose watchwords were compliance, control, and command. Convenience sampling was used to draw samples from the schools of Ahmedabad district. Total Quality Management (TQM) is recognized as an important management philosophy and is widely used in US industry. Edgecumbe High School Sitka, Alaska Kathleen Cotton Quality is never an accident. The kaizen implement employee work improvement positively effect on overall work and quality of service, Kaizen implementation positively affects overall work and quality of service, Employee work improvement on overall work and quality of service is partially mediated between kaizen implementation and on overall work and quality of service of Insurance companies in Jordan. This report recognizes the critical factors of TQM and highlights the approaches of quality improvement strategies for an efficient and effective implementation of TQM in business, manufacturing and service sector. The findings suggest that proper adoption of TQM practices coupled with employee commitment will guarantee competitive advantage outcomes measured in terms of increase in revenue, customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction. The determinations of the study also provide a comprehensive understanding of TQM, its uses and present detailed guidelines and explanations of effective implementation of TQM for the betterment of the service sector. Over the past two eras, total quality management (TQM) has become more broadly used management short form and is looked upon as the buzz, discussion in the management practices and has proven that there is a rapid shift in the application of TQM in diverse industries from manufacturing to the service organization. Considerable claims are made for TQM. Although the quality issue has a long history in most industrial organizations, dating from the introduction of quality control concepts in the post-War era and developing through quality assurance in the 1960s and 1970s, the quality issue, A research was made to determine the quality issues in the Japanese business firms to estimate the differences in theoretical and practical applications. There are those in education who believe that TQM properly applied to it can complete a similar transformation. the service sector and the development of a systematic approach to In other words, teamwork and collaboration are essential. Unfortunately, this has led to the unprecedented rise in the poor quality of Nigerian graduates which contributes to the very alarming high rate of unemployment in the country. The first level is to the management process of a school, including strategic planning, recruiting and staff development, deploying resources, and alignment of what is taught, how it is taught, and how it is assessed. (2011), TQM can be described as an integrative 42 small and medium size enterprises. The very application of the first pillar of TQM to education emphasizes the synergistic relationship between the "suppliers" and "customers". that measurements of service sector work appear to be practical and must continuing improvement of quality through measurement. ERIC Digest No. The data obtained from the questionnaire was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics.

application of total quality management in education

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