The paper examines ontological presuppositions and epistemological branches of Peace and Conflict Studies. Epistemology, also known as the theory of knowledge, will flourish as long as we deem knowledge valuable. As you explore the branches of philosophy, remember to keep Metaphysics first and foremost. In this article the four main branches of philosophy will be discussed as an overview to aid in understanding the importance of philosophy as a teacher, educator, parent, or student. 158 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<05DB0CB75A74D942B1D7E29BBF9467B7><734D205F59B3D643B06938FD530DCBC0>]/Index[145 28]/Info 144 0 R/Length 73/Prev 135207/Root 146 0 R/Size 173/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream The Logic of Science, which is responsible for analyzing the logical structure of scientific theories. I discuss the main branches of philosophy (metaphysics, epistemology and ethics). Skepticism begins with the apparent impossibility of completing this infinite chain of reasoning, and argues that, ultimately, no beliefs are justified and therefore no one really knows anything. 3. Visit the Foundation for Creating A Mind With Heart and start exploring the true nature of your own Heart and Mind and how it creates your physical life experience. The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. For example: Suppose that the clock on campus (which keeps accurate time and is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and has yet to be repaired. Theory of Knowledge 3. 0 After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. It is essentially about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. It is the foundation of a worldview. Propositional knowledge can be of two types, depending on its source: Knowledge of empirical facts about the physical world will necessarily involve perception, in other words, the use of the senses. 2 Branches of Philosophy (cont.) Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge.It answers the question, "How do we know?" First, decide which two of the following branches you would like to explore: epistemology, metaphysics, logic, aesthetics, and ethics. It is that branch of philosophy which goes beyond the realms of science. Epistemology: Epistemology literally means “science of knowledge. ... Other Branches of Philosophy: Philosophy of Education: Fairly self-explanatory. According to an ancient tradition Pythagoras of Croton (born on the Greek island of Samos, c. 580 B.C.) [�yL� �� �8��H,C�`/Gd�U^�`N��pdM��/08���� in �GZ� 172 0 obj <>stream It is the study of the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation. 2. It answers the question\"What is it?\"It encompasses all that exists, as well as the nature of existence itself. (it correspond to the slides of my class about knowledge in my subject “Logic and reasoning”) 2. Spread the loveSome may argue that philosophy is the essence of education and without knowing your philosophy how can you learn, how can you teach, how can you live? Unlike Skepticism, however, Fallibilism does not imply the need to abandon our knowledge, just to recognize that, because empirical knowledge can be revised by further observation, any of the things we take as knowledge might possibly turn out to be false. Intuition is often believed to be a sort of direct access to knowledge of the a priori. is a platform for academics to share research papers. My belief is true, of course, since the time is indeed 11:56. 145 0 obj <> endobj Fallibilism also claims that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible, or at least that all claims to knowledge could, in principle, be mistaken. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. It is the branch of philosophy responsible for the study of existence. AUTHORITATIVE KNOWLEDGE: based on information received from people, books, a supreme being, etc. h��VYo�8�+zl1���� @�I���@�����5�>[�6�~H�N�N3ۦ��0dQ")�?J\�>dD0zN�B/���;��ػD���p!] The Oxford Handbook of Epistemology . Aristotle, one of the most well-known philosophers, acknowledged Thales a… endstream endobj startxref METAPHYSICS--deals with the study of reality ; Ontology--explores issues related to nature, existence, or being ; Cosmology--concerned with the nature and origin of the cosmos or the universe. A philosopher of religion must be objective. Divided into the topics of ethics and aesthetics, axiology is the philosophical study of value. There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as can be seen in the Concept Chart.At the root is Metaphysics, the study of existence and the nature of existence.Closely related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know about reality and existence. The Semantics of Science, which is based on the analysis, systematization and interpretation of all scientific concepts. It says whether the world is real or simply an illusion. S��%A��Zڜ ���2)L:@Q Ľ@���d��g� 0 @~�} The Main Branches of Philosophy are divided as to the nature of the questions asked in each area. Nonetheless, it seems evident that I do not know that the time is 11:56. The issue here is not who was right, but that we all have b}�o3012(������� ܝ The study of the universe is one of the themes of metaphysics. Informal presentation of knowledge. endstream endobj 146 0 obj <> endobj 147 0 obj <> endobj 148 0 obj <>stream B. EPISTEMOLOGY--concerns with the nature of The traditional approach is that knowledge requires three necessary and sufficient conditions, so that knowledge can then be defined as "justified true belief": The most contentious part of all this is the definition of justification, and there are several schools of thought on the subject: Another debate focuses on whether justification is external or internal: As recently as 1963, the American philosopher Edmund Gettier called this traditional theory of knowledge into question by claiming that there are certain circumstances in which one does not have knowledge, even when all of the above conditions are met (his Gettier-cases). A minor branch, mainly concerned with what is the correct way to educate a person. ", "What do people know? Subscribe to our newsletter, Offramp Updates and get a free 8 Week Study Guide. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics. `��QZ��O�Q& � `Q�4. Logic is the attempt to codify the rules of rational thought. Logic is one of the primary tools used by philosophers in their study. Branches of epistemology. Next, create a Venn diagram to help organize your ideas. The name ‘Metaphysics’ is derived from the Greek words ‘Meta’, which means beyond or after, and ‘Physika’, which means physics. ", "What makes justified beliefs justified? Epistemology asks questions like: "What is knowledge? Empiricism and rationalism can be specified as the two major constructing debates within the field of epistemological study that relates to business studies. LOGICAL KNOWLEDGE: arrived at by reasoning from "point A" (which is accepted) to "point B" … [1]Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief, and justification. Branches of Philosophy The four main branches of philosophy are logic, epistemology, metaphysics, and axiology. Epistemology has different branches on which it bases its studies, and these are the following: 1. Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of … It is essentially about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. Memory allows us to know something that we knew in the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. But before anything is done, the meaning of philosophy should be understood. In conclusion effort was made to clarify what ontology, epistemology and axiology entail so as to have clear understanding of what the terms mean. Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of … The mission of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is to clarify what the conception of knowledge involves, how it is applied, and to explain why it has the features it does.And the idea of knowledge at issue here must,in the first in-stance at least,be construed in its modest sense to include also belief,conjecture, and the like. ", "Is justification internal or external to one's own mind?". "Philosophy is the love of wisdom" The rather vague definition 'love of wisdom' comes from the origin and etymology of the Greek word 'philosophy': philo ("love") and sophia ("wisdom"). It attempts to distinguish good reasoning from bad reasoning. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims. And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is working, and I cannot be blamed for basing beliefs about the time on what the clock says. Branches of Philosophy Instead of being treated as a single, unified subject, philosophy is typically broken down into a number of specialties areas or branches. The difference between the two is that preservationist SE clings more closely to traditional paradigms of mainstream epistemology whereas expansionist SE ventures a bit further into unfamiliar terrain.¹ As a prolegomenon to an assessment of SE’s prospects, then, let us consider The theory of knowledge, from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech/study), is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin, scope and (possibility/study) of knowledge.Dealing with nature, is one of the branches of philosophy. The following are the branches that we will focus on: Metaphysics Epistemology Teleology Ethics Logic This is a first introductory tutorial on what philosophy is about. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony (that is, my justification for a particular belief could amount to the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true). According to Guba cited in Marovic, 2000), at the objectivist end of this( continuum one finds the logical-positivist epistemology, where the observer’s %PDF-1.5 %���� It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification. But all knowledge requires some amount of reasoning, the analysis of data and the drawing of inferences. epistemology as being on a continuum between subjectivism and objectivism, which refers to “the relationship between the knower and the knowable” (p. 14). Epistemology has many branches that include essentialism, historical perspective, perennialsm, progressivism, empiricism, idealism, rationalism, constructivism etc. h�b```f``2g`a``i``@ �r4��,Pa�P�O\�,��N` Epistemology Eduardo Fermé Organization 1.. o a p ese tat o o ow edge. The Ontology of Science, analysis and systematization of scientific postulates. There are a few main theories of knowledge acquisition: The fact that any given justification of knowledge will itself depend on another belief for its justification appears to lead to an infinite regress. As I explain, positivism and interpretivism are research paradigms, and epistemology and ontology are beliefs included in these paradigms. It is concerned with answering the questions about identity and the world. We shall, I predict, continue to value knowledge, if only for its instrumental value: it gets us through the … On my way to my noon class, exactly twelve hours later, I glance at the clock and form the belief that the time is 11:56. What is Philosophy? Epistemology in Education: Epistemological Development Trajectory Rachida Labbas Washington State University Learning is a continuous process, and through the process of learning, people acquire or construct new knowledge; this knowledge is evaluated implicitly or explicitly (Hofer, 2000). It is the clear, lucid information gained through the process of reason applied to reality. Ontology, epistemology, positivism and interpretivism are concepts dreaded by many, especially when it comes to discussing them in a research paper or assingment :) Here I explain each one, as well as their relationship to each other. It describes the narrower use of the concepts ‗ontology‘ and ‗epistemology‘ as sub-branch and branch of philosophy respectively and later focus ", "What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. h�bbd``b`��@��H�� �\WH0�XA��� considered bona fide branches of epistemology. The integrity of these divisions cannot be rigidly maintained, for ... Epistemology: the study of knowledge. Epistemology What is Epistemology? ", "What is its structure, and what are its limits? In the dinner party scenario, Stephen and Caroline had quite different beliefs about the nature of knowledge. The Branches of Philosophy Joe Bess AIU Online Abstract There are six branches of philosophy, they are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. The kind of knowledge usually discussed in Epistemology is propositional knowledge, "knowledge-that" as opposed to "knowledge-how" (for example, the knowledge that "2 + 2 = 4", as opposed to the knowledge of how to go about adding two numbers). It is a fundamental vision of the world around us. On Epistemology in general: Joseph Cruz’s Nature Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science article, “Epistemology” (pdf document) Peter Klein’s Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy article, “Epistemology”. 4. Knowledge Importance of Epistemology theory in scientific research EPISTEMOLOGY: recognize four different sources of knowledge: INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE: based on feelings rather than hard. A paper "Formal Epistemology and … Anyone who is ready to study philosophy should be able to attack and defend. It encompasses the nature of concepts, the constructing of concepts, the validity of the senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions, and all things mental.It is concerned with how our minds are related to reality, … Title: Branches of Philosophy 1 Branches of Philosophy. ", "How is knowledge acquired? PDF | Philosophers and others have long tried to formulate an explanation of the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge. It questions the existence of spiritual beings, nature of universe, life after death, etc. Formal epistemology – subdiscipline of epistemology that uses formal methods from logic, probability theory and computability theory to elucidate traditional epistemic problems. Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of particular aspects of reality. Epistemology (from Greek ἐπιστήμη - episteme-, "knowledge, science" + λόγος, "logos") or theory of knowledgeis the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. Preface. On Particular topics in epistemology: %%EOF The Branches of Philosophy Joe Bess AIU Online Abstract There are six branches of philosophy, they are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. In response to this regress problem, various schools of thought have arisen: Under the heading of Epistemology, the major doctrines or theories include. ", "How we are to understand the concept of justification? `5cVd��\�T̢�|>P�!k�{;G��I̻�ژ��gMf��˜��>2�h�� 3M�*f ��w.$�!V�C�5���! It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification.

branches of epistemology pdf

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