The qualitative requirements of RAMS define the RAMS requirements of a product in nonquantitative ways. 15 turnouts in the main line are studied with LCC technology, as shown in Figure 14.50. ABSTRACT. AB - In the offshore wind energy sector, there are many different conceptual wind turbine structures, from traditional mono-pile structures to floating platforms. Y1 - 2005. In the thesis, the annuity costs of three types of No. Maintainability can be defined as “the degree of facility with which an equipment or system is capable of being retained in, or restored to, serviceable operation. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750635530500090, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780884152576500028, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780884152576500089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128126684000034, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124199729000036, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012811373800001X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780884152576500016, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012805427700004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978088415257650003X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978032339617200014X, Product Development (Second Edition), 2014, G.W.A. They are an integral part of RAMS technical requirements. To obtain satisfactory maintainability the following factors must be considered: The equipment or machine could fail at some time or other. The presentation of information in the maintenance and repair manual. Design to use common fixtures, fittings (to minimise tooling) and standard parts. Reliability refers to the capability of a product, equipment, or system to perform relevant functions under given conditions and in a given time. Maintainabilityrefers to the ease with which maintenance activities can be performed on an asset or equipment. 2. With the improvement of closed-loop management systems for HSR engineering equipment, collection and accumulation of basic data for asset management and the establishment of digitalized engineering equipment management platforms, the application of RMAS and LCC in Chinese HSR turnouts will expand gradually. These factors play a crucial role in the maintainability assessments. - Factors Maintainability is a component of a more general concept, software quality, which is described in terms of a hierachy (see figure 1 [EM87]) of factors, criteria and metrics. For quantitative requirements of safety, two concepts are mentioned in EN50126-2: tolerable hazard rate (THR) and safety integrity level (SIL). B.S. Factors affecting computer performance Date Posted: 10/24/2012 3:25:45 AM. RAMS is an acronym for “reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety.” In Europe, EN 50126 has long prevailed in the railway industry; this code was defined as IEC 62278: 2002 and later. [Define maintainability and factors that contribute to facilitating maintainability in systems. The railway transport authority will specify related SIL as per the significance of the safety-related system. (b) The positioning of maintenance displays, check points, gauges, meters and the position of one assembly with respect to others. The estimate should be updated continuously as the design progresses to provide visibility needed to ensure the specified requirements have a high probability achievement. AU - Wieringa, Roelf J. PY - 2005. If the efficiency target is not achieved, it becomes necessary to improve the operational capabilities of critical equipment: Through installing the redundancies in most critical equipment; Through enhancing the reliability and maintainability of equipment used, without the installation of new redundancies; Through maintenance policy that allows keeping the desired availability level. This model classifies all software requirements into 11 software quality factors. Intrinsic factors contributing to maintainability are: [1] Modularity: Packaging of components such that they can be repaired via remove and replace action vs. on-board repair. The two parameters are somewhat correlated, as shown in Table 14.12. Reliability was first practiced in the early start-up days for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) when Robert Lusser, working with Dr. Wernher von Braun's rocketry program, developed what is known as \"Lusser's Law\" . Comparative Study of the Factors that Affect Maintainability . In the breakdown of periodic maintenance, as shown in Figure 14.49, it can be seen that most costs are incurred on periodic replacement, inspection, and adjustment, while the rest is for tamping, grinding, and reconditioning of welding heads. As per EN50126-1 and EN50126-3, RAM parameters may be separated from safety parameters in the railway transport industry. Furthermore, more efficient maintenance means a faster return to operation or service, decreasing downtime. Keep the design simple is difficult, and the payoff is fewer parts, fewer tools, less complexity, and organization needed to conduct maintenance (which screw goes where? Pages 261–266. LCC is greatly affected by RAMS. Minimize spare parts inventory is just one benefit. Resolution: Help your operators by ensuring the system is informative and not only signals failure mode but has inbuilt diagnostics for fault finding. 15 turnout, UIC60 rails, swing nose crossing, radius of transition lead curve=760 m. The analysis shows that the EV-BV50-600-1:15 turnout has a lower purchase cost than EV-UIC60-760-1:15 (lower by 8%), but it has relatively higher maintenance cost and a shorter life; therefore, its annuity cost is higher by 11% than the latter. 15 turnout developed by Sweden, UIC60 rails, fixed crossing, radius of transition lead curve=600 m; and. Each factor will have a maximum score of 10. Figure 14.49. Product operation factors− Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability. This time is a function of the structure of the operational organization and is influenced by factors such as work schedules and the nontechnical duties of maintenance people. The factors which affect the frequency with which For the sake of achieving a cost-effective, coherent, and comprehensive design, the effective and efficient handling of this information is crucial. Composition of turnout cycle maintenance cost. Petar Kochovski, Vlado Stankovski, in Security and Resilience in Intelligent Data-Centric Systems and Communication Networks, 2018. Maintainability is the measure of the ability of an item to be retained in or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels using prescribed procedures and resources at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. This feature implies a degree of difficulty of the maintenance provided to the device or product. It may be measured by combining factors such as frequency of maintenance, maintenance costs, elapsed maintenance or repair times, and labor hours. For these metrics, the average per module is taken, and combined into a single formula: To arrive at this for… - A list of maintainability factors to be included in the assessment should be devised e.g. Figure 8-1. Examines the factors that affect the maintainability of a software. CORE is a not-for-profit service delivered by This paper presents different maintainability models from various standards and quality models define its sub-characteristics and then perform analytical comparison of these sub-characteristics. maintainability. Therefore, the selection of reliability and maintainability of the equipment should try to minimize the total cost of procurement and maintenance, that is, LCC, if other conditions are the same. The biggest factor is the experience and expertise of the developers working on the software. The simulation creates typical life cycle scenarios for proposed systems, with Monte Carlo simulation methodology. When it comes to Reliability and Maintainability (R&M), the public and private sectors’ objectives appear to be aligned. LCC theory has been rooted in China for over 30 years. Predictions are applicable to all programs and all system and equipment types. Posted By: SAUCER Membership Level: Gold Total Points: 4885. Initially, this theory was mainly used in formulating assessment and inspection policies around equipment status. 3. Linguee. Qualitative requirements for maintainability: maintainability requirements that cannot be described by quantifiable indexes—for instance, parts requiring frequent adjustment, cleaning, and replacement must be easy to assemble and disassemble or available for in-situ maintenance; maintenance requirements for specific products, such as requirements for accessibility, dismantlement, modularization, handling, easy cleaning, normalization, interchangeability, and testability. This is the earliest time when sufficient data is available to perform a meaningful quantitative evaluation of design characteristics in terms of performance and maintenance. Shaoping Wang, ... Hong Liu, in Commercial Aircraft Hydraulic Systems, 2016. Active repair time is that portion of equipment downtime during which the repair staff is actively working to effect a repair. Maintainability engineers must use a scientific approach to measure the maintainability qualities they build into manufactured products. Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Winton MBE, BSc(Eng), ACGI, CEng, FIEE, in, An Elementary Guide To Reliability (Fifth Edition), Aircraft Reliability and Maintainability Analysis and Design, Reliability Based Aircraft Maintenance Optimization and Applications, Comprehensive Reliability Design of Aircraft Hydraulic System, Dependability of Container-Based Data-Centric Systems, Security and Resilience in Intelligent Data-Centric Systems and Communication Networks, Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM Analysis), Gas and Oil Reliability Engineering (Second Edition), RAM analysis was evaluated using BlockSim and MAROS (, Maintainability Measures, Functions, and Models. It is apparent,from the definition of maintainability, that the ability and need to perform maintenanceactions is the underlying consideration when assessing maintainability. Reliability falls into two categories: intrinsic reliability and operational reliability. Using the container virtualization in data-centric systems offers us high level maintainability due to the nature of containerization technologies. Qualitative requirements for safety: capability of preventing disastrous accidents in case of system failure by fault safety design, interlocking design, error prevention design, etc., while improving relevant reliability. This paper describes the several types of vital factors that affect the maintainability of software systems as proposed by different researchers in different software maintainability models. Rather, low reliability and maintainability may relate to low purchase cost but high maintenance cost of the equipment in use. Open menu. Flexibility is the ability of software to add/modify/remove functionality without damaging the current system. Availability is the possibility of access to a system for normal operation at a given moment when available. For example, a more maintainable product lowers maintenance time and operating costs. Maintainability is an important factor in the total cost of equipment. High reliability and maintainability may relate to high purchase cost, but reduced maintenance cost from a relatively lower failure rate of the equipment in use. Apart from the fact that replacement parts needs are affected by factors such as operating conditions and the equipment's inherent capability to tolerate operating stress levels, logistic time is largely a matter of management. RAMS Task List for High-Speed Turnouts, LCC analysis of high-speed turnouts [183]. There are many parameters which influence the maintainability of long duration manned space flights. However, in the face of marketization reform of the Chinese railway management system and huge debts from HSR construction, the managers of the railway infrastructure had to find a way out, and attempted to reduce the cost of rail components, optimizing railway engineering maintenance technology based on reliability and guided by risk-informative safety management, so as to minimize the costs of engineering operation and maintenance while maintaining a certain safety level. Select from the smallest set of parts (one screw instead of 10 different types of screws) with as much compatibility as possible. N2 - We want to explore and analyse design decisions that influence maintainability of software. DrEduardo Calixto, in Gas and Oil Reliability Engineering (Second Edition), 2016. These include, as shown in Figure 8-2, the costs of prime equipment, system engineering management, repair parts, support equipment, data, training, system test and evaluation, and new operational facilities [2]. Pr… It is a blend of several metrics, including Halstead’s Volume (HV), McCabe’s cylcomatic complexity (CC), lines of code(LOC), and percentage of comments (COM). [Remediation Accessed :N] its supportability. In 2008, the code was adopted by China, renumbered as GB/T21562-2008, and renamed “Railway Applications: The Specification and Demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS).” The application of RAMS is being improved gradually in the design, manufacturing, operation, and maintenance of high-speed turnout products for Chinese HSRs [182]. Relationship between THR and SIL, Table 14.13. Those functionality changes may occur according to changing requirements, or an obligation if the development process is one of the iterative methods. From: Product Development (Second Edition), 2014, G.W.A. 1. Collectively, they affect both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a product or system. The comprehensive assessment of the costs for product procurement and use, etc. 15 turnout, UIC60 rails, fixed crossing, radius of transition lead curve=760 m, EV-BV50-600-1:15: No. Reliability, maintainability, and availability (RAM) are three system attributes that are of great interest to systems engineers, logisticians, and users. Acquisition personnel can play an important role in minimizing logistic time by developing effective procurement policies. Principal factors affecting maintainability. Reliability is the wellspring for the other RAM system attributes of availability and maintainability. The environment in which maintenance or repairs will be carried out. Results show that periodic preventive maintenance cost (including costs for equipment, labor, and spares) has greater weight, much more than corrective maintenance. Previous Chapter Next Chapter. SIL defines the requirements for the safety level of safety-related systems, classified into four levels (SIL4 is the highest requirement). Product revision factors− Maintainability, Flexibility, Testability. The RAMS/LCC assessment model is to assess the equipment systems by efficiency and LCC. The quantitative requirements of RAMS of the turnouts are represented by RAMS parameters and relevant requirements thereof. Lift cost analysis process during operation and maintenance period. Ways to improve equipment maintainability. Suggest as a translation of "maintainability factors" Copy; DeepL Translator Linguee. Therefore, the repair density function m(t) is the probability that the faulty product is repaired to normal condition in Δt. The subareas considered are (1) design for maintainability, (2) training the maintenance man for the responsibility of maintaining the equipment, and (3) the tools, equipment, and/or aids that are necessary to enable the maintenance man to meet his responsibilities. Specifically: Figure 14.50. The feature is based on reliability, availability, and maintainability. The primary purpose of maintainability measures is to influence design and subsequently produce a more cost-effective and maintainable end product. Asset availability is impacted by several factors. Logistic time is that portion of equipment downtime during which repair work is delayed because a replacement part of other component of the equipment is not immediately available. It includes the costs for product design, manufacturing, procurement, use, maintenance, and disposal. may be conducive to upgrading the performance and RAMS requirements of the product, and to reducing later use cost. Abstract. Reliability and maintainability are important measures of the effectiveness of systems or products. To obtain satisfactory maintainability the following factors must be considered: (a) The equipment or machine could fail at some time or other. These measures make possible the quantitative assessment of product maintainability. All in all, since active repair time is largely determined by the equipment's built-in maintainability characteristics, the manufacturer of the equipment plays a key role in influencing how much active repair time is required. Table 14.11 presents the basic RAM parameters of high-speed turnouts. Understanding how reliability and maintainability affect availability is … By Soumi Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar Dubey and Ajay Rana. Product transition factors− Portability, Reusability, Interoperability. Table 14.11. The selection of best maintainability model is prime concern for developing quality software system. The positioning of maintenance displays, check points, gauges, meters and the position of one assembly with respect to others. EV-UIC60-760-1:15: No. One way to define the difference between reliability and maintainability is that while reliability is the probability that a failure will not occur in a particular time, maintainability is the probability that required maintenance will be successfully completed in a given time period. Soumi Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar Dubey and Ajay Rana, Update/Correction/Removal A factor is a top-level expression of software status for management reporting. structure, complexity.- Each factor (or group of factors) should be assigned a weighting to indicate its importance to the overall maintainability of the system. Here is a list of human factors related, design for maintainability considerations: Consider maintenance from ‘cradle to grave’. To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal DHILLON, in Engineering Maintainability, 1999. 7. The turnout supplier must include those RAMS work contents into a relevant RAMS working plan, making arrangements reasonably and defining the type, implementation period, and connection between processes, so as to monitor the process. The three main components of equipment downtime are logistic time, administrative time, and active repair time [20]. EVR-UIC60-760-1:15: No. Maintainability depends on the product design and the technical level of repair personnel, the repair process, and the repair facilities. A scientific approach to maintainability should include good maintainability principles and guidelines; controlling mechanisms to ensure that maintainability is built in; simple and straightforward maintainability measuring methods that mean fewer and less complicated tasks during the design process and other processes; good interaction between design and maintainability professionals; and good record keeping to allow statistical analyses and reviews of maintainability action effectiveness. Required administrative activities and unnecessarily wasted time are both included in administrative time. When a repair starts at time t = 0, the probability that the repair will be completed in a given time t will affect a variety of decisions. PDF | Maintainability is considered as one of the fundamental quality aspect that promotes efficient software systems development. Important technical factors affecting maintainability include: readability; preservation of knowledge; modifiability; testability. An examination of the major interdependent subareas of maintainability and of their relation to human-factor problems. Ping Wang, in Design of High-Speed Railway Turnouts, 2015. Then, arm them with the skills to act on this information. This feature implies the reliability and maintainability of a system. metric that measures the probability that a system is not failed or undergoing a repair action when it needs to be used Intrinsic reliability is reliability resulting from design and manufacturing. Different SILs correspond to different RAMS management methods, design and analysis methods, and verification methods to be employed in the design. Also patching update mechanisms could be implemented to improve the overall performance of the system during runtime, these mechanisms are often referred to as live upgrade or live update mechanisms. The simulation was conducted for 5 years and 250 tests were run to converge results. As the system design progresses to the detailed level, more complete design information becomes available and consequently estimation of system maintainability characteristics becomes more accurate. The simulation allows specialists to determine if the availability and efficiency results achieve the target of 98.2% in 5 years. The Maintainabilty Index was introduced in 1992 by Paul Oman and Jack Hagemeister, originally presented at the International Conference on Software Maintenance ICSM 1992 and later refined in a paper that appeared in IEEE Computer. the Open University Maintainability documentation consists of tasks such as developing maintainability data and feedback reports, establishing and maintaining a maintainability data bank and a library containing important maintainability documents and information, documenting information related to maintainability management, preparing and maintaining handbook data and information with respect to maintainability, documenting maintainability trade-offs and the results of maintainability analysis, and documenting the results of maintainability design reviews. Many mathematical models are available to calculate associated measures and functions of maintainability. This mode places more importance on operational safety of the track components than economical efficiency. Maintainability prediction should be accomplished immediately following definition of the basic system. Maintainability is the ability of the system to undergo modifications with a degree of ease. The 2020 theme for the annual R&M Symposium (RAMS) — a conference focused on the latest technical practices and procedures presented through technical papers and tutorials — was, “R&M in a Model-Based Systems Engineering Environment.” The product maintainability can then be expressed as. Maintainability is the ability of the system to undergo modifications with a degree of ease. Request. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. Safety refers to the capacity of a system or product to prevent personal injury, system destruction, or major property loss, and to avoid hazard to people and the environment. The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). The maintainability of the software system is becoming a very important characteristic due to growth in demand of quality software system. Maintainability is the ability of the system to go through repairs and modifications while it is up and running. Figure 1-1. Maintainability is a probability measure that a product will be maintained or restored to the specified function for a specified period of time at any specific level of repair conditions. Administrative time is that portion of equipment downtime not taken into consideration in active repair time and in logistic time. Request. Elements of investment cost related to maintainability, He Ren, ... Yong Chen, in Reliability Based Aircraft Maintenance Optimization and Applications, 2017. A Survey of Key Factors Affecting Software Maintainability. Basic Parameters of RAM of High-Speed Turnout. AU - Hordijk, W.T.B. Translator. The reliability objective of the system at various levels, as shown in Table 14.13, must be satisfied. Extensibility is the ability of software to add functionality without damaging system, so it may be thought of as a subset of flexibility. The key factors in extending the evolution stage are integrity of the software architecture and preservation of the developers’ knowledge base. Discover our research outputs and cite our work. In the past, planned preventive maintenance, an empirical maintenance mode instead of relying on scientific analysis of reliability and risks, was used in maintaining Chinese railway track structures. Every software maintainability model has some sub-characteristics which impact on maintainability directly or indirectly. Operator error is the second-most common cause of downtimeafter hardware error. Its six elements are fault location time, preparation time, failure verification time, actual repair time, part acquisition time, and final test time, as shown in Figure 1-1. Once a system fault is detected, it is desirable to be able to apply the necessary improvements as soon as possible, without having to shut down the system. In pharmacokinetics, bioavailability is related to absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. The user may supervise and manage the supplier by specifying compulsory RAMS work content in the procurement agreement for turnouts, so as to ensure the implementation of relevant quantitative and qualitative requirements for RAMS during the process of R&D and production of the products. Qualitative requirements for reliability: reliability requirements that cannot be described by quantifiable indexes; requirements for operational reliability; design requirements for reliability of specific products, such as simplified design, redundancy design, derating design and allowance design, environmental protection design, thermal design, electromagnetic compatibility design, ergonomics design, and application of mature technology and selection and control of components/parts; and protective or preventive measures and requirements around failures that will or may jeopardize the system. Every software is a bit different and developers have to do slightly different things to ensure quality. Each factor is described by a … Today software quality is a major point of concern and it is important to be able to assess the maintainability of a software system. Because equipment downtime consists of many components and subcomponents, as shown in Figure 1-1 [19], there are numerous engineering and analytical efforts required to reduce downtime. The limitations imposed by the human frame. Table 14.14. 1.2.3 Maintainability Maintainability is the ability of an item to be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. Suppose that Tm is the repair time with repair density function m(t). The actual techniques used to optimize system effectiveness will be described in greater detail elsewhere in this blog. Title: Microsoft Word - tm1.doc Author: Utilisateur Created Date: 5/19/2004 7:17:04 AM The LCC of high-speed turnouts during the operation and maintenance may be analyzed as per the procedures given in Figure 14.48. There are many components of investment cost related to maintainability. At this early stage of system design process, maintainability predictions can still influence the design approach. With proper implementation of the proposed architectural approaches for data management, described previously, the developers could achieve high maintainability. Table 14.14 shows a list of common RAMS work contents for turnout, which may be seen as a reference for engineering applications. Figure 8-1 shows various ways of increasing maintainability [2]. Reliability and maintainability are two factors that are heavily influenced by maintenance. The concept of LCC originated from the Swedish railway system; operational and maintenance cost of turnouts is assessed with LCC technology by taking Swedish railway turnouts as an example. Its purpose is to measure the probability that a piece of equipment in a failed state can be restored to normal operating conditions after undergoing maintenance. Table 14.12. Define supportability and factors that contribute to supportability in systems.] EVR-UIC60-760-1:15 turnout has a higher purchase cost by about 43% (the highest of the three); notwithstanding the greatly reduced maintenance cost and prolonged life, it has the highest annuity cost. Dummer MBE, CEng, FIEE, FIEEE, ... R.C. Maintainability prediction is the estimation of maintenance workload (preventive and corrective) associated with the proposed design. Life cycle cost (LCC) is the total cost of a product during its effective use. RAM analysis was evaluated using BlockSim and MAROS (Maintainability, Availability, Reliability, Operability Simulator) software. Usually, the length of active repair time reflects factors such as product complexity, diagnostic adequacy, nature of product design and installation, and the skill and training of the maintenance staff. The optimization of system effectiveness is a highly complex problem; there is a degree of interaction among the factors which enter into consideration of this problem. Turnouts are a product of railway transport. Maintainability refers to the capability of the equipment of product to retain or restore relevant functions after being maintained as per specified processes or methods under given conditions and in a given time. EN. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Parametric Relationships of Factors Affecting Maintainability of Long Duration Manned Space Flights 670665. Dummer MBE, CEng, FIEE, FIEEE, ... R.C. define a system’sinherent maintainability and thus determine the related maintenance burden and affect system availability. Target Reliability of System Levels. The maintainability effort produces and uses a significant amount of information and data. Figure 8-2. This could be caused by a number of factors. THR defines the requirements in terms of the fault rate of safety-related systems. Winton MBE, BSc(Eng), ACGI, CEng, FIEE, in An Elementary Guide To Reliability (Fifth Edition), 1997. 1.2.4 Factors Affecting RA… T1 - Surveying the factors that influence maintainability: research design. Change is inevitable in software development and so, this is one of the most important properties of quality softw… The maintainability of the software system is becoming a very important characteristic due to growth in demand of quality software system. An increase in maintainability can lead to reduction in operation and support costs. and Jisc. RAMS is an acronym for “reliability, availability, Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants, Reliability parameter of a maintainable product, equaling the ratio of total life of the product to total number of faults in given conditions and time, At a given maintenance level, the ratio of total time for repair maintenance to total number of faults of the repaired product in given conditions and time, Mean time between maintenance episodes (MTBM), Mean interval between maintenance episodes (preventive and repairing maintenance), Mean time for preventive and repair maintenance, The availability of a product when only repair maintenance is involved, The availability of a product when both repair and preventive maintenance are involved, The availability of a product when preventive and repair maintenance, and repair and management delay are concerned, MUT is mean up time, MDT is mean down time, Mean time between critical failures (MTBCF), The ratio of total life of the product to total number of critical failures in a given conditions and time, Significant failure during operation, causing an operation interruption of over 2 h, Interruption at fault region, causing an operation interruption of 15 min–2 h, Failure causing an operation delay of less than 2 min or other failures not affecting train operation, Failure report analysis and corrective action system (FRACAS), Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA), Reliability-centered maintenance analysis (RCMA), Operational and support hazard analysis (O&SHA). The difference between those two indexes means that throughout part of the operational time the distillation unit production was not 100%. FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OUTCOMES Journal of Information Technology Management Volume XVII, Number2, 2006 27 Stepwise Regression Results and Hypothesis Testing Table 2 shows the results of the stepwise regression used to test the hypotheses in the study (all Beta values significant at .0001). Availability, reliability, and maintainability: What’s the difference? Operational reliability defines the performance level of intrinsic reliability of a product in actual use. At present, its application has been extended to various industries (e.g., power industry); however, application to the management of track equipment, such as turnouts, is rare. Comparison of LCC (annuity cost) for three types of turnouts. Some ways staff can contribute to poor maintainability include: inadequate PLC skills, operating the machinery outside its parameters, reactive versus proactive attitude, or simply not actioning alerts in a timely manner. 3. A Survey of Key Factors Affecting Software Maintainability Abstract: Today software quality is a major point of concern and it is important to be able to assess the maintainability of a software system. Maintainability is a design characteristic that affects accuracy, ease, and time requirements of maintenance actions. It is an intrinsic property specified by design. maintainability. Equipment downtime components. You may be wondering why you computer is slow at times and there are other times when it is fast in processing. However, they are particularly pertinent in programs where risks are high or unknown, and failing to achieve the maintainability requirements, highly undesirable. Requirements for RAMS work contents are to enable products to meet relevant quantitative and qualitative requirements for RAMS. The 11 factors are grouped into three categories – product operation, product revision, and product transition factors. Designing for Maintainability: Human Factors Considerations. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Next, the evaluated model was loaded with failure and repair data. Take the life cycle of turnout products, for instance; the relationships among RAMS parameters are shown in Table 14.10. Classification and evaluation criteria for different Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety, and Inspectability (RAMS + I) factors are outlined and discussed. It is one of the three main features for system efficiency (with performance and dependability). Software maintainability means the ease with which asoftware system or component can be modified to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes or adapt to a changed environment. Figure 14.48. ). The entire unit was modeled through RBDs, considering the redundancies and the possibilities for bypass in each equipment or system configuration. They should also use a scientific method to rate and examine indistinct maintainability concepts and to review new ways to rectify deficiencies in products [11]. This shows that, in some examples, equipment failures do not represent total plant shutdown. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING BUILDING MAINTENANCE IN GOVERNMENT RESIDENTIAL ESTATES IN AKURE, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA The availability and efficiency were 96.285% and 98.627% in 5 years, respectively. The two parameters are used in safety-related systems such as automatic train protection.

factors affecting maintainability

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