Darwin, Charles. "54 One has little trouble imagining which route Nietzsche would prefer to take here. It is no matter of fact, no 'text,' but rather only a na�vely humanitarian emendation and perversion of meaning, with which you make abundant concessions to the democratic instincts of the modern soul! "24 Heidegger goes on to state, however, that "we are affirming something far more essential, to wit, that he is thinking the selfsame in the historical fulfillment of its essence. Indeed, in places, Nietzsche even speaks enigmatically of his own project as something like what Kant was doing; he writes in the Genealogy of the "new immoral, or at least unmoralistic 'a priori' and the alas! "116 This is the ultimate moment of utopian thought for Nietzsche. In many ways it is his frustration with the relentless rationalism and objectivity of conventional nineteenth century science that motivates Nietzsche's critique of that tradition: "in the claims to objectivity, to cold impersonality, where, as in the case of all valuations, we describe ourselves and our inner experiences in a couple of words. In addition to a spirited defense of the value of the Jewish people, Nietzsche gives us here a searing critique of anti-Semitism as a component of nationalism. In Nietzsche's Germany, there was a strong correlation between nationalism and anti-Semitic racism. Thus Nietzsche writes in a note from the Nachla�: "In England one remarks on how free-minded the highest sobriety in moral matter makes one: Spencer, Stuart Mill. 79Bergmann, Last Antipolitical German, 30. Strong, Tracy B. Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration. New York: Crown, 1977. As Nietzsche writes, "Europe is sick but owes the utmost gratitude to her incurability and to the eternal changes in her affliction: these constantly new conditions and these no less constantly new dangers, pains and media of information have finally generated an intellectual irritability that almost amounts to genius and is in any case the mother of all genius. . In Human, all too Human, Nietzsche suggests that the motivation behind such beliefs is largely psychological: "the joy. Nietzsche can now be read as advocating a kind of Enlightenment, but not any kind hitherto known. Introduction: Nietzsche as Critic and Captive of Enlightenment, "What is Enlightenment?" Or more accurately, Nietzsche wishes to explore the possibilities of subjectivity available to us once we begin to think of rationality as one quality or aspect of humanity, rather than as humanity's single defining characteristic. "112 Indeed, Nietzsche's thought does not merely resemble that of Lamarck; he occasionally mentions Lamarck specifically. He writes in Beyond Good and Evil: "as long as the utility reigning in moral value judgments is solely the utility of the herd, as long as one considers only the preservation of the community, and immorality is sought exactly and exclusively in that which seems dangerous to the existence of the community--there can be no morality of 'neighbor love. "23 Again we see here the criticism of democracy as the movement of the herd; this time the critique is stated in moral terms. . It is the goal of profound individual growth and development, rather than the specific content of that growth, that aligns Nietzsche with the project of the traditional Enlightenment. "120 We have seen already that Nietzsche denounced the conventional subject and its so-called "free will" as dangerous illusions. And there are other concepts in Nietzsche's work that look like scientific theories. "7 As we shall see, Nietzsche opposed this Enlightened faith in progress as naive; however, it was here that he had the most trouble eluding the influence of Enlightenment. "76 Darwin offers predictions of progress in the natural world, but perhaps more significantly, he also offers both predictions and prescriptions for social progress, most notably in The Descent of Man. Modern society for Nietzsche was exhausted, decadent, hostile to life; he saw his century not as the proud, triumphant century of Darwinian evolution but as the century of the herd, the last man. If this state is achieved mankind would have become too feeble still to be able to produce the genius. "What gives me the right," Nietzsche demanded, "to speak of an ego, and even of an ego as cause, and finally of an ego as the cause of thought? What's more, Spencer's science is intimately related with an Enlightened politics that has much in common with certain elements in Mill's thought; one of the intellectual projects to which Spencer was most devoted was an attempt to justify an extreme form of political liberty. The scientific man could be both a lowering and a strengthening because he represented, in Nietzsche's mind, two conflicting principles. Nietzsche writes in Beyond Good and Evil: Owing to the pathological estrangement which the insanity of nationality has induced, and still induces, among the peoples of Europe; owing also to the shortsighted and quick-handed politicians who are at the top today with the help of this insanity, without any inkling that their separatist policies can of necessity only be entr'acte policies; owing to all this and much else that today simply cannot be said, the most unequivocal portents are now being overlooked, or arbitrarily and mendaciously reinterpreted--that Europe wants to become one.65. The motivation behind his critique was to open a space within which he would be able to specify the characteristics of a radical new kind of subjectivity, a subjectivity which would be centered, but in a way fundamentally different from the way subjectivity had been centered since the Enlightenment. "42 The physicist who responds with Newton's equation when asked what gravity is has not told us anything true about the world, Nietzsche believes. It is through the category of absolute reason that Kant is able to maintain an essentially Christian ethical position without explicit reference to a Christian God. As Walter Kaufmann puts it, "the State becomes the devil of Nietzsche's ethics: it intimidates man into conformity and thus tempts and coerces him to betray his proper destiny. "71 Far from being the enemy of the ascetic priest, the modern scientist is actually an ascetic priest par excellence, carrying on the work of the ascetic from within the comfortable disguise of scientific objectivity. Philosophy, as we know it, began over two-thousand years ago in Athens with the birth of Socrates. Cambridge University Press (www.cambridge.org) is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. This interpretation begins to suggest that the key to understanding Nietzsche's thought of eternal return lies in grasping the idea of time implied by that thought. In the Genealogy, Nietzsche argues that modern man "needs to believe in a neutral independent 'subject,' prompted by an instinct for self-preservation and self-affirmation in which every lie is sanctified. Nietzsche Critique Of Socrates. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1992. Higgins also finds it difficult to sustain the position that Nietzsche was no humanist. Nietzsche is seeking a world in which people will want to affirm the eternal return. "111 Nehamas underemphasizes the importance that Nietzsche places on the overman as a new kind of human subject. Ansell-Pearson, Keith. In the Gay Science, Nietzsche denounces "Schopenhauer's mystical embarrassments and subterfuges in those places where the factual thinker allowed himself to be seduced and corrupted by the vain urge to be the unriddler of the world. There are other aspects of Christian doctrine in Kant's ethics. Thus he writes of "the insipid and cowardly concept 'man' � la Comte and Stuart Mill, perhaps even the object of a cult--It is still the cult of Christian morality under a new name--"37 On Nietzsche's reading, Mill's egalitarian politics merely secularizes the ethics of Christianity, while retaining the ideology of the herd that Nietzsche believes to be central to Christian thought. Nietzsche writes in the Will to Power: "Logical certainty, transparency, as criterion of truth ('all that is true which is perceived clearly and distinctly'--Descartes): with that, the mechanical hypothesis concerning the world is desired and credible. He writes in Human, All Too Human: "All those who do not have themselves sufficiently under their own control and do not know morality as a continual self-command and self-overcoming practised in great things and in the smallest, involuntarily become glorifiers of the good, pitying, benevolent impulses, of that instinctive morality which has no head but seems to consist solely of heart and helping hands. Nietzsche and Eternal Recurrence: the Redemption of Time and Becoming. '"24 Rousseau is seeking a just society, to be sure. Southern Journal of Philosophy 29 (Winter 1991): 419-430. David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley have argued that "without the stimulus of a popular movement that was strong enough to shift bourgeois notables to the left, the constitutionalist movements of the last century were unlikely to embrace a significant element of democracy. 27Nehamas, Nietzsche: Life as Literature, 65. Translated by Walter Kaufmann. 119Nietzsche, Twilight of the Idols, 501. We have seen that for Nietzsche, the thought of eternal return and its effects on us are often more important than any "real" eternal return, and the same may be said for the idea of overman. By showing a philosophical position to be the simple result of a psychological need, he implies that people believe in this position not because the world really is that way, but only because they have a disposition to believe it. "21 This would seem at first to contradict my claims about Nietzsche's critique of the Cartesian method. --[is] an amusing question, since the reverse is obvious and is precisely that which speaks in favor of civilization. These principles represent another side to the Nietzschean affirmation, one which further develops the optimism embodied by the overman. Indeed, his faith in Enlightenment is so strong that when he attempts to hold onto those pre-Enlightenment concepts, such as Christian ethics, that he feels must be preserved, he does so by translating their terms into those of the Enlightenment. Translated by R. J. Hollingdale. There seems to be at least some textual evidence, then, to suggest sympathies between Nietzsche and Darwin. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955. Certainly Zarathustra finds the prospect difficult to bear: "'Eternally recurs the man of whom you are weary, the small man'--thus yawned my sadness and dragged its feet and could not go to sleep.. . "There is thinking: therefore there is something that thinks": this is the upshot of all Descartes' argumentation. "48 Far from representing the glorious collective future of mankind, as its proponents claim it does, socialism on Nietzsche's reading was a regression, a move away from true equality to the false equality of the herd. Nonetheless, the model by which Nietzsche describes the development of the Overman is often recognizably Lamarckian. Evolution implies that species are moving closer and closer to perfection all the time. We return again to Nietzschean utopia. Nietzsche's idea of a proper morality is one that is perspectival, and this is what he means when he discusses a morality beyond good and evil. This equation may seem strange given the obvious hostility between liberals and socialists in the nineteenth century. This is not surprising, given the fact that both political systems rely on an Enlightened principle of subjectivity which Nietzsche rejects. Ernst Cassirer argues that in the eighteenth century, power could be understood in terms of a single word: reason. Spencer represents the apex of the attempt to impose a framework of rationality upon the world of human interaction, to make all human activity explicable and predictable. Nietzsche and Philosophy. 23Clark, Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy, 183. Furthermore, the radical change in Nietzsche's view of the Enlightenment is taken as evidence of the periodization of his thought, which some prominent Nietzsche scholars (e.g. However, what Thiele and others sometimes fail to acknowledge is that the kind of "individualism" Nietzsche advocated was profoundly different in content from the rational individualism of the Enlightenment, and from the nineteenth century political individualism that grew out of that Enlightened tradition. "17 There could be no reconciliation, Nietzsche felt, between the rights of the few and those of the many, and one of the fundamental problems of democracy was that it insisted on maintaining and defending the latter. Nietzsche saw the Enlightenment as broad and bold, powerful and terrifying. 11Descartes, quoted in Cristaudo, Metaphysics of Science and Freedom, 3. Nietzsche is also opposed to the varieties of nineteenth century Enlightened thought that build upon these foundations, as I shall show in later chapters. "86 The Kantian subject comes directly from the Cartesian subject, and therefore cannot be a part of any Nietzschean project. Nietzsche is arguing that, contrary to what many scientists and laymen assume, there is no necessary reason to suppose that the world should behave according to laws. Nietzsche also found Darwin's ideas to be of questionable worth. Deleuze writes: "the revolutionary character of Nietzsche's method becomes apparent at the level of method: it is his method that makes Nietzsche's text into something that is not to be characterized in itself as 'fascist,' 'bourgeois,' or 'revolutionary,' but to be regarded as an exterior field where fascist, bourgeois, and revolutionary forces meet head on. But Darwin was not simply a scientist in the general sense of someone who seeks knowledge about the natural world through theory and experiment. "53 This is a very interesting passage, for here Nietzsche seems to be equating socialism with liberal individualism for the purposes of denouncing both. In a passage from the Nachla� dated 1881, for example, he writes: "we are stepping into the era of anarchy, but this is at the same time the era of the freest and most spiritual individual. Finally, Nietzsche offered a cultural critique of science, denouncing it as a nihilistic enterprise, ridiculing the men who performed science, and drawing a surprising but persuasive comparison between science and theology as similar cultural enterprises. '"26 Here Heidegger is invoking Nietzsche's strongest statement of subjectivity and explicitly tying it to the Cartesian world view. The history of Mindfulness comes from Buddhism and his search for enlightenment and a foundation of the four noble truths. So far Nietzsche's critique of the history of religious guilt and its developments appears to be in line with Kant's belief that any man seeking enlightenment must not be hampered by religious imposition. This, then, is the limitation of his critique of Enlightened science. In Human All too Human, even Nietzsche's critiques of science are often sympathetic: "just as in nature, so in science it is the poorer, less fruitful regions that are the first properly cultivated--because it is precisely for this that the means available to budding science are approximately adequate. But it is not a movement that is easy to surpass. "What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to attain anything which tempts him and which he is able to attain; what he gains is civil liberty and property in all that he possesses. Nietzsche Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe. Karl Jaspers describes eternal return as "a new ethical imperative, which demands that I measure everything I feel, will, do and am by one standard: whether I accomplish it in such a way that I should like to do it repeatedly in the same way or, in other words, whether I can will that this same existence occur time and again. 79Wilcox, Truth and Value in Nietzsche, 146. At best, Nietzsche's project now seems utopian in the negative sense of an unrealistic affirmation made in the face of overwhelming negative forces. As Anthony Cascardi notes, "according to conventional interpretations and, more importantly, on the authority of principles explicitly stated in Kant's second Critique, the obligations we construe as ethical may be regarded as the manifestations of a law which in turn reflects the rationality, freedom and autonomy of the subject-self. "38 Nietzsche's critique of scientific truth is part of a much broader and more general critique of truth in general. That this work places itself squarely in the tradition of the Enlightenment is clear; the title even contains a direct reference to one of the major themes of Enlightenment to which I have been referring, namely progress. Breslau: Trewendt and Granier, 1919. Descartes's metaphysics relied on a belief in God, and many aspects of Rouseau's ethical thought were recognizably Christian. A bit of historical context is perhaps helpful here in locating the origins of Nietzsche's extreme hostility to this variety of politics. Indeed, Nietzsche felt that the dangers of science far outweighed any possible practical benefit it might bring. Gerhardt, Volker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. "34 Nietzsche, then, is not only critical of Rousseau's account of the evolutionary process by which the social contract developed; he also attacks the very concept of human nature which would make such an evolutionary development possible. Nietzsche goes on to argue for the complete predictability of the universe: "everything here is necessary, every motion mathematically calculable. Who could still successfully seek greatness? 94Brogan, "Nietzsche's Transgression of Metaphysical Subjectivity," 419. "96 This agrees with what I have been arguing: Madigan suggests that Nietzsche wishes to retain the Enlightenment's goal of freedom, yet realizes that the method�by which the Enlightenment seeks such freedom--based as it is in the problematic Cartesian subject--is doomed to failure. This attack on the hegemony of Darwinian evolutionary theory contains a critique of the mechanisms by which Darwin accounts for evolution. The rational, autonomous subject introduced by Descartes is essentially the same subject who makes free ethical choices in Kant's scheme; this is also the subject who makes the categorical imperative possible. As is often the case when Nietzsche describes those whom he hated, his strongest invective is reserved for the German example: "the reason the German socialist was the most dangerous was that he was driven by no definite need; he suffered from not knowing what he wanted; thus, even if he achieved a great deal, he would languish from desire even in the midst of plenty just like Faust, though presumably like a very plebeian Faust. "42 Here we see the rationalism of Descartes returning, this time in morality. As we have seen, he was definitely opposed to ideas of progress based on conventional Enlightened concepts such as those of Cartesian science or Rousseauian political development. Ruse, Michael. "88 However, we should keep in mind that Nietzsche's point here is not to develop a philosophically rigorous linguistic critique. The Social contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Yet Nietzsche was also the proponent of "great politics," a mysterious and sometimes terrifying program designed to replace modern, Enlightened political systems with something superior. Here the two targets of Nietzsche's wrath are Darwin and Spencer. He writes in Human all too Human: "And now try to assess the greatness of those exceptional Greeks who created science! In your body he dwells; he is your body. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. The commitment to progress is another Enlightenment category which Nietzsche retains. This landmark study is a detailed textual and thematic analysis of one of Nietzsche’s most important but least understood works. essays advocating 'realism' were published in The Review, as well The Metaphysics of Science and Freedom. "9 What is important to realize here is that Descartes began his intellectual career as a scientist and only later turned to philosophy as a source of metaphysical justification for his scientific pursuits. Heidegger's membership in the Nazi party makes his motives on this issue especially suspect. As I argued in Chapter One, Mill's thought represents the attempt to retain what he saw as the possible benefits of utilitarianism while simultaneously accounting for the needs of the autonomous Enlightenment subject by developing a philosophy of liberalism. Past and Present 51 (May 1971): 83-115. "28 Again, freedom seems to be a key part of Rousseau's political system. "118 Once Nietzschean affirmation begins, it can have no tidy end, and if the overman is merely a stage on the way to an ever greater affirmation, then it would be naive indeed to suppose that Nietzsche's project could ever be concluded in any meaningful way. Rather, he made this radical attack on all known political forms and on the idea of the actor who practices those forms for the purpose of making room for a profoundly new politics, and a new kind of political subject. He also realized that time had done nothing to heal the Enlightened tradition, but had only amplified its problems until Nietzsche's own century was confronted with the distorted abominations of soulless science and exhausted democracy. "131 It is this honesty which prevents Nietzsche from rejecting modern science in its entirety. Loeb writes: "the priority of reason over sense-perception ultimately rests on the greater irresistibility of reason. Yet this is a book about Nietzsche, and so the Enlightenment must remain simply a context, while the texts upon which I rely are, for the most part, Nietzsche's. "20 But in fact this changes everything. . "7 Not only does science furnish an inadequate account of the meaning of the world, but it does not even necessarily fulfill its goal of providing useful knowledge about the physical world. "The unvarying will of all the members of the State is the general will; it is through that that they are citizens and free. "129 For Nietzsche, the beauty that was revealed as he uncovered the groundlessness of our ideas of subjectivity lay in the possibilities created by this revelation. It would seem, then, that Nietzsche is opposed not to science in general but to science as it was done in his own century; that is, to science in the Enlightenment tradition. In places, however, Nietzsche is not above using this concept of subjectivity against Rousseauian political thought: "one tries to condition an individual by various attractions and advantages to adopt a way of thinking and behaving that, once it has become a habit, instinct and passion, will dominate him to his own ultimate disadvantage but 'for the general good. '"55 For Nietzsche, then, Kant's ethics and Rousseau's politics (that is, the politics of the French Revolution) are inextricably tied together. Nietzsche writes: "that science is possible in this sense that it is cultivated today is proof that all elementary instincts, life's instincts of self-defense and protection, no longer function. Against any Cartesian dualism Nietzsche offers this new idea: that the body is all there is, that the "soul" and the "mind" are mere effects of our bodies. "87 Nehamas's frustration here is legitimate. But his redefinition of human subjectivity was a first step that must be taken before these larger political questions could be addressed. The anti-philosopher disputes the posibility of objectivity snd universality and rejects the absolute authority of reason; anti philosophers also reject the possibility of a neutral stance or perspectivelss perspective. Reboul, Olivier. Spencer "never deserted his abstract individualism or his trust in the 'natural' economic laws of classical political economy. Spencer. We see further evidence of Nietzsche's militarism in the self-interpretation he offers in Ecce Homo: "I am warlike by nature. He writes in Human All too Human: "the socialists desire to create a comfortable life for as many as possible. .alike in emphasizing the priority of individual autonomy and in making it the basis of all value. What kind of a future is he really proposing? 7Babich, Nietzsche's Philosophy of Science, 90. "95 Many of these characteristics--free thought, science, political liberation--are clearly Enlightened categories. "34 I believe that this is an accurate assessment. For an example of Nietzsche's attack on nineteenth century liberalism, we should therefore look to an English figure, and Nietzsche provides this example in his critique of John Stuart Mill. Perhaps no single word better captures the essence of nineteenth century Enlightened science than "Darwin." Nietzsche is entirely unsatisfied with the possibilities of Kant's autonomy. 77Strong, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration, 208. He writes: "can you give yourself your own evil and your own good and hang your own will over yourself as a law? His relentless assault on conventional ideas of Enlightened subjectivity did not prevent him from developing a radically new concept of individual selfhood, which he named overman. --. What Deleuze is pointing to here is the essence of the Nietzschean paradox. Nietzsche was very strongly opposed to this model of social development. Hessischen Ludwigs-Universit�t zu Gie�en, 1932. That hope is that even as science in its corrupt, decadent nineteenth century form undermined the possibilities for a meaningful modern culture, the kernel of truth at the heart of the modern scientific enterprise, namely scientific rigor and discipline, would make possible a bright new future. Or does his critique go deeper than that? "You are mere bridges," Zarathustra says to the higher men. What Kant offered with his morality was nothing less than an attempt to appropriate Christian ethics into the Enlightenment through reason. I mention Antosik's position not because it is particularly defensible or even particularly articulate, but because it represents a tendency in Nietzsche criticism which has traditionally been quite strong. "15 A close examination of our belief in causality, Nietzsche claims, reveals this belief to be nothing more than the product of our thought processes; it has no necessary bearing on or relation to the natural world. Deleuze writes: "[the eternal return] gives the will a practical rule. Energy wasted on utopian pipe dreams was energy that could no longer be devoted to the actual improvement of humanity, as Nietzsche saw it. International Studies in Philosophy 21 (1989): 21-35. '"35 The phrase "for the general good" here echoes "for the general will," and we may suppose that this is no accident. --. Magnus, Bernd. Zarathustra's project has a dual aspect: he simultaneously challenges conventional or traditional values--for our purposes, the values of the conventional Enlightenment--and turns our eyes towards future goals. Nietzsche's critique of Descartes begins with an attack on Cartesian metaphysics and rationality. The domestication of man: what definite value can it have? Let me first address the claim that amor fati represents the limits of humanism for Nietzsche. He writes in Daybreak: "No utilitarians.--'Power which is attacked and defamed is worth more than impotence which is treated only with kindness'--that is how the Greeks felt. New York: Penguin Books, 1988. But the overman also brings a "new fear," and as we shall see shortly, Nietzsche had good reason to add this caveat. Nietzsche writes in Daybreak: "science has, moreover, become something very useful to everyone. There is no more poisonous poison anywhere: for it seems to be preached by justice itself, whereas it really is the termination of justice. Science, after all, represents one of the fundamental pillars of Enlightened thought; to call the values of science into question is also to undermine belief in the possibilities of Enlightenment. As Lampert puts it, "having gazed into the grounds of Western thought and being, Nietzsche opposes most directly what he interprets as a decayed form of the spirit of gravity, decayed Platonism, decayed Christianity, virulent modernity. It is perhaps for this reason that Nietzsche retained so many of the structures and forms of Christian thought. This new science will, he hopes, retain the rigor and discipline of Enlightened science, while evading the excessive rationalism which necessarily characterizes any science carried out in the Enlightenment tradition. "76 Dualism gave way in Nietzsche's thought to perspectivism. If the objector goes on to ask why it ought, I can give him no other reason than general utility. "66 But Mill's justification for this elitist position is that it creates the circumstances in which, ironically, an ideal society will be possible. Thus "as a biologist, Mr. Herbert Spencer is a decadent; as a moralist, too (he considers the triumph of altruism a desideratum!!!). The final, and perhaps most important, way in which Nietzsche's writing resonates with Enlightened thought lies in the extreme individualism characteristic of the overman. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. He writes: "a 'scientific' interpretation of the world, as you understand it, might therefore still be one of the most stupid of all possible interpretations of the world, meaning that it would be one of the poorest in meaning. Greg Whitlock is quite right when he writes that "as human history continues to develop. He writes: "from the moment one man began to stand in need of another's assistance; from the moment it appeared an advantage for one man to possess enough provisions for two, equality vanished; property was introduced; labor became necessary; and boundless forests became smiling fields, which had to be watered with human sweat, and in which slavery and misery were soon seen to sprout out and grow with the harvests. 14Soffer, From Science to Subjectivity, 7. It is exhausted by compromise: it never makes us overcome the reactive forces which are expressed in man, self-consciousness, reason, morality and religion. . However, it is important to recall here that "science" is only our best attempt to translate the German word Wissenschaft. Nietzsche writes in the Nachla�: "The domestication of men: what positive worth can this have?...The Darwinian school makes great efforts to persuade us of the opposite: they want the workings of domestication to become fundamental. They are not associated with Nietzsche's idea of nobility; they are therefore to be abjured. This is the problem of race. Kant, who never ventured beyond the safe and comfortable environs of his university town of K�nigsberg, is for Nietzsche the very epitome of the isolated Enlightenment academic. "Active and Reactive." "51 This is another of his favorite tactics of critique; by branding something as a "sickness," he immediately implies several other things: that it is a danger to life, and that it must be "cured" or overcome. "44 Yet there is, of course, no real reason to suspect that science will always deliver this kind of result. But it also an enterprise he saw as extremely important, and here Nietzsche retained a crucial aspect of Enlightenment thought. The published text of Zarathustra shows a similar concern for and emphasis on the future. "98 In place of the notion of free will, Nietzsche offers a vision of the universe as "a continuous flux. Nietzsche is deeply critical of any manifestation of Enlightened politics, which is to say that he attacks any system of political belief which relies on the autonomous Cartesian self, or on the Enlightened notion of social progress. "11 Descartes is seeking in the Discourse the metaphysical underpinnings of a practical philosophy.

nietzsche critique of enlightenment

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